Homeowners’ Association: Understanding the Implications of Forms 1120, 1120-H, and 990


Tax filing is a crucial aspect of managing a Homeowners’ Association (HOA), yet it often remains an overlooked or misunderstood element. The complexities of tax law can seem daunting, especially when navigating the specific requirements that pertain to HOAs. This article aims to demystify this process, focusing on the implications of choosing between different tax forms available to HOAs: Form 1120, Form 1120-H, and Form 990. Each of these forms serves a unique purpose and comes with its own set of benefits and considerations.

Homeowners’ Associations, like any other entity, have specific tax obligations that must be met to remain compliant with federal regulations. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) provides different forms to accommodate the diverse structures and activities of HOAs. Choosing the right form is not just a matter of legal compliance; it can also significantly impact the financial health and operational efficiency of an association.

In this article, we will delve into the nuances of these tax forms. We’ll explore when and why an HOA might choose one form over another, the advantages and potential drawbacks of each, and the implications of these choices for the financial management of your HOA. Whether you are a board member, a property manager, or a resident of an HOA, understanding these tax forms is essential for making informed decisions and ensuring the financial stability of your community.

As we embark on this journey through the intricate world of HOA tax filing, our goal is to provide clarity and guidance, helping you navigate these choices with confidence and knowledge. So, let’s dive in and unravel the complexities of Forms 1120, 1120-H, and 990, to better understand how they apply to Homeowners’ Associations and what that means for your community.

Understanding the Basics of HOA Taxation

Navigating the taxation landscape for Homeowners’ Associations (HOAs) requires a fundamental understanding of their tax obligations and the nature of their income. This foundational knowledge is crucial in making informed decisions about which tax form to file.

A. General Tax Obligations of HOAs

HOAs are unique entities in the eyes of the IRS. Although they are not typically considered “businesses” in the traditional sense, they still have income, expenses, and consequently, tax obligations. The general principle is that HOAs must pay taxes on income that is not exempt under the Internal Revenue Code. This includes, for example, revenue from non-members or income from external sources such as advertising or leasing community spaces.

B. Exempt vs. Non-Exempt Income

  1. Exempt Income: This is the income derived directly from HOA members for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property. It includes membership dues, fees, and assessments. The IRS generally considers this income tax-exempt because it is used to cover expenses incurred for the maintenance of the common areas and for the benefit of the members.
  2. Non-Exempt Income: Non-exempt income, on the other hand, is any income that does not directly relate to the primary purpose of the HOA. Examples include interest from bank accounts, rental income from HOA property, or income from services provided to non-members. This type of income is typically subject to taxation.

C. The Importance of Proper Classification

Understanding the difference between exempt and non-exempt income is critical. Misclassification can lead to compliance issues and potentially hefty penalties. HOAs must maintain meticulous records that clearly delineate between these two types of income to ensure accurate tax filing.

D. Utilizing Tax Deductions and Credits

Like other entities, HOAs can take advantage of certain deductions and credits to reduce their tax liability. These might include operating expenses, maintenance costs, and other necessary expenditures related to the HOA’s primary function. The ability to leverage these deductions effectively, however, largely depends on the type of tax form the HOA chooses to file.

In the next sections, we will explore how each of the specific tax forms – Form 1120, Form 1120-H, and Form 990 – cater to the unique financial and operational aspects of HOAs. This will include a detailed look at the pros and cons of each form, helping HOAs make the best decision for their specific circumstances.

Form 1120: U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return

Form 1120 is the standard income tax form for corporations in the United States. While Homeowners’ Associations (HOAs) are not typically corporations in the traditional business sense, they can choose to file under this form. Understanding when and why to file Form 1120 is crucial for HOA boards.

A. Overview of Form 1120

Nature of Form 1120: This form is used by corporations to report their income, gains, losses, deductions, credits, and to calculate their federal income tax liability. For an HOA, filing Form 1120 means being treated as a regular corporation for tax purposes.

Filing Requirements: Any HOA can choose to file Form 1120, regardless of its size or income structure. However, the decision to use this form should be based on a careful analysis of the HOA’s financial activities.

B. When and Why to Choose Form 1120

Significant Non-Exempt Income: If an HOA has a considerable amount of non-exempt income (such as rental income from non-members), Form 1120 might be more beneficial. This is because it allows the HOA to take advantage of corporate tax rates, which might be lower than the flat rate on Form 1120-H for non-exempt income.

Taking Advantage of Deductions and Credits: Corporations can utilize a wide range of deductions and credits. If an HOA has significant operating expenses or other deductible activities, Form 1120 could provide a more favorable tax position.

C. Pros and Cons of Filing Form 1120


Potential for Lower Tax Rates: Depending on the HOA’s financial structure, the corporate tax rates may result in lower taxes compared to the flat rate on Form 1120-H.
Deductions and Credits: The ability to claim a variety of deductions and credits could reduce the HOA’s tax liability.

Complexity: Form 1120 is more complex and may require professional assistance, leading to higher administrative costs.
Double Taxation Risk: Unlike Form 1120-H, there’s a potential for double taxation—once at the corporate level and again when the profits are distributed, although this is less common in HOAs.

Form 1120-H: U.S. Income Tax Return for Homeowners Associations

Form 1120-H is a specialized tax form designed explicitly for Homeowners’ Associations (HOAs). This form offers a simpler and often more beneficial way for HOAs to fulfill their tax obligations. Understanding when and how to use Form 1120-H is essential for an HOA’s financial well-being.

A. Overview of Form 1120-H

  1. Purpose and Nature: Form 1120-H is tailored for HOAs, allowing them to take advantage of certain tax benefits. This form simplifies the tax filing process by focusing on the unique financial activities of HOAs.
  2. Eligibility Criteria: To file Form 1120-H, at least 60% of the association’s gross income must be from exempt function income (such as membership dues, fees, or assessments), 90% of its expenses must be for the acquisition, construction, management, or maintenance of association property, and 85% of the units must be used as residences.

B. Benefits of Filing Form 1120-H

  1. Tax on Exempt-Function Income: Exempt-function income is not taxed under Form 1120-H. This is particularly beneficial for HOAs where the majority of income is from member dues and assessments.
  2. Flat Tax Rate for Non-Exempt Income: Non-exempt income is taxed at a flat rate, which simplifies the tax calculation and can be advantageous for HOAs with limited non-exempt income.
  3. Simplified Filing: The form is generally easier to complete compared to Form 1120, reducing the likelihood of errors and the need for professional tax assistance.

C. Considerations When Filing Form 1120-H

  1. Limited Deductions: Unlike Form 1120, Form 1120-H offers limited opportunities for deductions. HOAs should carefully consider this when they have significant non-exempt operating expenses.
  2. Assessment of Financial Structure: HOAs need to evaluate their income sources. If non-exempt income is a substantial portion of the total income, the flat tax rate on Form 1120-H may result in higher taxes compared to Form 1120.

D. Comparison with Form 1120

  1. Simplicity vs. Flexibility: Form 1120-H is simpler but offers less flexibility in terms of deductions and credits compared to Form 1120.
  2. Tax Rate Considerations: The flat tax rate on Form 1120-H is advantageous for HOAs with primarily exempt-function income, but for those with substantial non-exempt income, Form 1120 might be more beneficial.

Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax

Form 990 is a tax form used primarily by non-profit organizations, including some Homeowners’ Associations (HOAs) that qualify as tax-exempt under IRS rules. Understanding when and how to use Form 990 is important for HOAs that meet these specific criteria.

A. Overview of Form 990

  1. Purpose and Applicability: Form 990 is designed for organizations that are exempt from income tax under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, including those classified under sections 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4). Certain HOAs may qualify for this exemption and thus be required to file Form 990.
  2. Filing Requirements: The requirement to file Form 990 typically depends on the organization’s annual gross receipts and its total assets. It’s important for HOAs to determine if they meet the criteria for filing this form.

B. When and Why HOAs Might Choose Form 990

  1. Tax-Exempt Status: If an HOA has successfully applied for and obtained tax-exempt status from the IRS, it must file Form 990. This status is generally more applicable to HOAs that are involved in charitable activities or community welfare.
  2. Transparency and Public Disclosure: Form 990 is a public document and provides a high level of transparency about the organization’s finances, operations, and governance. This can be beneficial for HOAs looking to demonstrate accountability to their members and the public.

C. Advantages and Considerations of Filing Form 990

  1. Pros:
    • Exemption from Federal Income Tax: Qualifying HOAs are exempt from paying federal income tax, which can be a significant financial benefit.
    • Public Confidence: The transparency associated with Form 990 can enhance public trust and credibility in the HOA.
  2. Cons:
    • Eligibility and Compliance: Obtaining and maintaining tax-exempt status requires meeting specific criteria and adhering to ongoing compliance regulations.
    • Detailed Reporting: Form 990 requires comprehensive disclosure of financial, operational, and governance information, which can be resource-intensive.

D. Comparison with Form 1120 and 1120-H

  1. Scope and Purpose: While Forms 1120 and 1120-H are geared towards taxation of income, Form 990 focuses on reporting the operations of tax-exempt organizations. The choice between these forms depends on the HOA’s legal status and financial activities.
  2. Tax-Exempt vs. Taxable Income: HOAs filing Form 990 typically do not pay tax on their income, whereas those filing Forms 1120 or 1120-H might have tax liabilities on certain types of income.


Navigating the complex world of taxation for Homeowners’ Associations (HOAs) is a task that requires careful consideration and informed decision-making. Throughout this article, we have explored the intricacies and implications of filing different tax forms – Form 1120, Form 1120-H, and Form 990 – each offering distinct advantages and considerations.

Key Takeaways:

  1. Form 1120 is suitable for HOAs with significant non-exempt income and those that can benefit from corporate tax rates and deductions. However, it is more complex and poses a risk of double taxation.
  2. Form 1120-H offers simplicity and is specifically tailored for HOAs, exempting exempt-function income from taxes. It’s an ideal choice for associations with predominantly member-related income but offers limited deductions.
  3. Form 990 caters to tax-exempt HOAs, typically those engaged in charitable activities. It requires stringent compliance but offers the advantage of public transparency and exemption from federal income tax.

The decision on which form to file should be based on a comprehensive analysis of the HOA’s financial structure, income sources, and operational needs. Missteps in tax filing can lead to compliance issues, financial penalties, and potentially, a loss of trust within the community.


  • Professional Consultation: Given the complexities involved, it is highly advisable for HOAs to seek guidance from tax professionals who specialize in this area. They can provide personalized advice, ensure compliance, and help optimize tax benefits.
  • Continuous Education and Awareness: Board members and HOA managers should stay informed about changes in tax laws and regulations. Regular training sessions and workshops can be valuable.
  • Transparency and Member Engagement: Keep the members of the HOA informed about tax decisions and their implications. Transparency in financial matters builds trust and ensures a collective understanding of the association’s financial health.

Final Thoughts:

Tax filing is more than just a legal obligation for HOAs; it’s an integral part of financial stewardship that can significantly impact the association’s fiscal health and community well-being. By making informed choices about tax filing, HOAs can not only ensure compliance with federal regulations but also position themselves for financial stability and success.

As we conclude, remember that the right choice varies for each HOA, and what works for one may not be suitable for another. The goal is to find a balance that aligns with your HOA’s financial realities and long-term objectives, ensuring a thriving and well-managed community.

Schedule a call with WM Accounting & Bookkeeping today to learn more.

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